List of Presidents of the United States

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The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person).

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 people have served as president. The first, George Washington, won at unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office, and is counted as the nation's 22nd and 24th president. Thus the incumbent, Donald Trump, is the nation's 45th president. There are currently five living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was on December 26, 2006 with the death of Gerald Ford; the most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan on June 5, 2004.

William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, dying 31 days after taking office in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[2] Zachary Taylor,[3] Warren G. Harding,[4] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[5] James A. Garfield,[5][6] William McKinley,[7] and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[8] John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency intra-term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, an intra-term vacancy was left unfilled.

Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.[9] Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

Presidents

  Unaffiliated (2)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (15)       Whig (4)       Republican (19)       National Union (2)
PresidencyTemplate:Efn President Prior officeTemplate:Efn PartyTemplate:Efn TermTemplate:Efn Vice President
1 April 30, 1789
Template:Efn

March 4, 1797
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[10][11][12]
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1775–1783)
  Unaffiliated
[9]
(1788–89)
1
(1789)
John Adams
Template:EfnTemplate:Efn
(1792)
2
(1793)
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[13][14][15]
1st
Vice President of the United States
Federalist (1796)
3
(1797)
Thomas Jefferson
Template:Efn
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[16][17][18]
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Democratic-
Republican
(1800)
4
(1801)
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
(1804)
5
(1805)
George Clinton
March 4, 1805March 4, 1809
4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
James Madison.jpg James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[19][20][21]
5th
United States Secretary of State

(1801–1809)
Democratic-
Republican
(1808)
6
(1809)
George Clinton
March 4, 1809April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's term)
(1812)
7
(1813)
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[22][23][24]
7th
United States Secretary of State

(1811–1817)
Democratic-
Republican
(1816)
8
(1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1820)
9
(1821)
6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
JQA Photo.tif John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[25][26][27]
8th
United States Secretary of State

(1817–1825)
Democratic-
Republican
(1824)
10
(1825)
John C. Calhoun
7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[28][29][30]
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1797–1798 & 1823–1825)
Democratic (1828)
11
(1829)
John C. Calhoun
Template:Efn
March 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
(1832)
12
(1833)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Martin Van Buren edit.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[31][32][33]
8th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic (1836)
13
(1837)
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[34][35][36]
United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
Whig (1840)
14
(1841)
(1841)

Template:Efn
John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
10 April 4, 1841
Template:Efn


March 4, 1845
Tyler Daguerreotype crop (restoration).jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[37][38][39]
10th
Vice President of the United States
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
Template:Efn
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
JKP.tif James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[40][41][42]
9th
Governor of Tennessee

(1839–1841)
Democratic (1844)
15
(1845)
George M. Dallas
12
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)
Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[43][44][45]
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office)
Whig (1848)
16
(1849)
(1850)

Template:Efn
Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
13 July 9, 1850
Template:Efn


March 4, 1853
Millard Fillmore by Brady Studio 1855-65-crop.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[46][47][48]
12th
Vice President of the United States
Whig Office vacant
14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Franklin Pierce - 1.jpg Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[49][50][51]
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–1848)
Democratic (1852)
17
(1853)
William R. King
March 4April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[52][53][54]
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
Democratic (1856)
18
(1857)
John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
(Died in office)
Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[55][56][57]
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th District
(1847–1849)
Republican
(National Union)
Template:Efn
(1860)
19
(1861)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
(1864)
20
(1865)
(1865)

Template:Efn
Andrew Johnson
March 4April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[58][59][60]
16th
Vice President of the United States
National Union
April 15, 1865c. 1868
Office vacant
Democratic
c. 1868March 4, 1869
Template:Efn
18
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[61][62][63]
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1868)
21
(1869)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
(1872)
22
(1873)
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[64][65][66]
29th & 32nd
Governor of Ohio

(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)
Republican (1876)
23
(1877)
William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Died in office)
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[67][68][69]
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District
(1863–1881)
Republican (1880)
24
(1881)
(1881)

Template:Efn
Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
21 September 19, 1881
Template:Efn


March 4, 1885
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[70][71][72]
20th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]
28th
Governor of New York

(1883–1885)
Democratic (1884)
25
(1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks' term)
23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[75][76][77]
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Republican (1888)
26
(1889)
Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]
22nd
President of the United States

(1885–1889)
Democratic (1892)
27
(1893)
Adlai Stevenson
25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Died in office)
Mckinley.jpg William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[78][79][80]
39th
Governor of Ohio

(1892–1896)
Republican (1896)
28
(1897)
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
(1900)
29
(1901)
(1901)

Template:Efn
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[81][82][83]
25th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
(1904)
30
(1905)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.tif William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[84][85][86]
42nd
United States Secretary of War

(1904–1908)
Republican (1908)
31
(1909)
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpg Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[87][88][89]
34th
Governor of New Jersey

(1911–1913)
Democratic (1912)
32
(1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
(1916)
33
(1917)
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[90][91][92]
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Republican (1920)
34
(1921)
(1923)

Template:Efn
Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
30 August 2, 1923
Template:Efn


March 4, 1929
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[93][94][95]
29th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
(1924)
35
(1925)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
President Hoover portrait.tif Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[96][97][98]
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1928)
36
(1929)
Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)
FDR 1944 Color Portrait.tif Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[99][100][101]
44th
Governor of New York

(1929–1932)
Democratic (1932)
37
(1933)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
Template:Efn
(1936)
38
(1937)
(1940)
39
(1941)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
(1944)
40
(1945)
(1945)

Template:Efn
Harry S. Truman
January 20April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Truman 58-766-09.jpg Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[102][103][104]
34th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
(1948)
41
(1949)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[105][106][107]
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1952)
42
(1953)
Richard Nixon
(1956)
43
(1957)
35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Died in office)
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[108][109][110]
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Democratic (1960)
44
(1961)
(1963)

Template:Efn
Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[111][112]
37th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
(1964)
45
(1965)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)
Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[113][114][115]
36th
Vice President of the United States

(1953–1961)
Republican (1968)
46
(1969)
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
(1972)
47
(1973)
(1974)

Template:Efn
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[116][117][118]
40th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(94 years old)
[119][120][121]
76th
Governor of Georgia

(1971–1975)
Democratic (1976)
48
(1977)
Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[122][123][124]
33rd
Governor of California

(1967–1975)
Republican (1980)
49
(1981)
George H. W. Bush
(1984)
50
(1985)
41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait cropped.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(95 years old)
[125][126][127]
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Republican (1988)
51
(1989)
Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(72 years old)
[128][129][130]
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas

(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)
Democratic (1992)
52
(1993)
Al Gore
(1996)
53
(1997)
43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
Born 1946
(73 years old)
[131][132]
46th
Governor of Texas

(1995–2000)
Republican (2000)
54
(2001)
Dick Cheney
(2004)
55
(2005)
44 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Obama portrait crop.jpg Barack Obama
Born 1961
(57 years old)
[133][134]
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Democratic (2008)
56
(2009)
Joe Biden
(2012)
57
(2013)
45 January 20, 2017

Incumbent
Official Portrait of President Donald Trump (cropped).jpg Donald Trump
Born 1946
(73 years old)
[135][136]
Chairman of
The Trump Organization
(1971–2017)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (2016)
58
(2017)
Mike Pence

Subsequent public service

Four presidents held other high U.S. federal offices after leaving the presidency.

President PresidencyTemplate:Efn Subsequent service
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. Representative from Massachusetts (1831–1848)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
Grover Cleveland 22 1885–1889 24th President of the United States (1893–1897)
William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930)

Several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency.

President PresidencyTemplate:Efn Office sought unsuccessfully
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts (1833)
Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States (1844)
President of the United States (1848)
Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States (1856)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1870)
U.S. Representative from Tennessee (1872)
Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States (1880)
Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States (1912)
Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States (1940)

Additionally, one former president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat.

See also

Notes

References

  1. "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  3. Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  4. Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard" Archived October 20, 2011, at WebCite, Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  6. Donald (1996), p. 597.
  7. "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  8. "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Jamison, Dennis (December 31, 2014). "George Washington's views on political parties in America". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016. 
  10. "George Washington". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  11. "George Washington". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  12. "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  13. "John Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  14. "John Adams". History. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 
  15. "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  16. "Thomas Jefferson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  17. "Thomas Jefferson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  18. "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  19. "James Madison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  20. "James Madison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  21. "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  22. "James Monroe". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  23. "James Monroe". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  24. "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  25. "John Quincy Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  26. "John Quincy Adams". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  27. "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  28. "Andrew Jackson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  29. "Andrew Jackson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  30. "Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  31. "Martin Van Buren". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  32. "Martin Van Buren". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  33. "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  34. "William Henry Harrison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  35. "William Henry Harrison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  36. "Life Portrait of William Henry Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  37. "John Tyler". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  38. "John Tyler". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  39. "Life Portrait of John Tyler". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  40. "James K. Polk". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  41. "James K. Polk". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  42. "Life Portrait of James K. Polk". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  43. "Zachary Taylor". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  44. "Zachary Taylor". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  45. "Life Portrait of Zachary Taylor". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  46. "Millard Fillmore". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  47. "Millard Fillmore". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  48. "Life Portrait of Millard Fillmore". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
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